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Due to the globalization, thriving consumer society, and rapid development of the financial intermediation, consumer lending, which includes unsecured loans lent to individuals, has become a fastgrowing area of the banking services over the past ten years in developing countries, such as Kazakhstan. Moreover, as a result of the world […]

15 July Attempted Coup in Turkey and Fethullah Terror Organization

In recent days, it seems that Gulen Community / Fethullah Terror Organization (FETO) and other terror organizations such as PKK and PYD have been used to damage the stability in Turkey, to separate its citizens deliberately, to betray the trust on democracy and politics and to make the environment in the country open for a possible external intervention. After […]

Evaluation of China’s “Made in China 2025” Strategy

According to the reports of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other international organizations, China, which has the second largest economy in the world, grew steadily until 2008 with approximately a 10% growth rate. China has become one of the leading economies in the Asia-Pacific region in a short time and achieved to be a new economic […]

15th Anniversary Summit of Shanghai Cooperation Organization on June 23-24, 2016

On June 23-24, 2016, 15th Summit of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) was held in Tashkent under the chairmanship of the President of Uzbekistan, Islam Karimov. Steadily adhering to the “Shanghai Spirit” the SCO member states signed the Tashkent Declaration, the Action Plan for 2016-2020 for the implementation of the SCO Development Strategy towards 2025, the Program on the […]

Contemporary Energy Relations Between Georgia and Azerbaijan

The energy relations between Azerbaijan and Georgia have shown a significant development which serves as a primary factor that have been strengthening their bilateral relations since 1992. Since both countries are located in the South Caucasus, it can be claimed that the geography has laid the foundation for the development […]

Prospects for China – Kyrgyzstan Economic Relations in the Framework of the Silk Road Economic Belt Project

Since 1992, when China and Kyrgyzstan established their diplomatic relations, they have succeeded in developing political, economic and cultural relations in mutual trust. Signing of more than 200 various interstate and intergovernmental agreements between Kyrgyzstan and China shows the acceleration of relations between the two countries in various fields. In terms of trade and economic relations, China has remained the main […]

Current Developments of China’s One belt, One Road Initiative

Over the last three decades, China has reached a high economic growth rate. Now, functioning in an open economy, Chinese business firms need to enter global markets and participate more actively in global competition. The co-construction of the One Belt, One Road (OBOR) project launched by the Chinese leader Xi […]

Turkmenistan’s Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration in the Caspian Sea

Since Turkmenistan is an energy-rich Central Asian country with significant hydrocarbon reserves, the oil and gas industry is a key contributor to the country’s economic growth. Nowadays, natural gas, crude oil and oil products make up about 80% of the country’s exports. Therefore, the sustainable capacity development of the oil […]


In 2014, the Central Bank of Azerbaijan stated that the banking sector in Azerbaijan started to develop as a result of ongoing positive dynamics of macro indicators and regulations which were characterized by the role of banks in the economy. According to Financial Sector Assessment Paper (2012) prepared by the […]

The Implementation of Fiscal Policies in the Economy of Kyrgyzstan

As Kyrgyzstan is an oil importer country, low oil prices in the world market have contributed to high consumption and growth in the country. As a result of a significant increase in gold exports, economic growth was also driven by net trade. Despite the recession in Russian economy, which caused a decline in the demand for Kyrgyz goods […]