Foreign Policy

May 3, 2022

30th Year of Diplomatic Relations between Türkiye and Turkic Republics

Türkiye was the first country to establish diplomatic relations with the Turkic Republics and to open an embassy in 1991. Culture, language, religion and social affinity and ties from the past between Türkiye and the Turkic Republics have been important factors in the shaping and development of relations between these […]
May 2, 2022

Moldova in the Light of Russo-Ukrainian War

The ongoing large-scale Russo-Ukrainian military conflict has already initiated far-reaching geopolitical shifts in Ukraine and its immediate surroundings. As soon as the conflict broke out, it became clear that the conflict was a major risk that jeopardizes Moldova and its choice of European and Euroatlantic integration. During the early hours […]
April 18, 2022

The Effect of Sanctions on Iranian Economy

An agreement on the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) was signed be-tween Iran and P5 + 1 countries (the five permanent members of the UN Security Council: China, France, Russia, USA, UK and Germany) in 2015, in which Tehran’s nuclear activities were regulated and controlled in exchange for the […]
February 25, 2022

Recent Changes in Foreign Trade of Russia

The foreign trade of Russia demonstrates significant changes. It is well known that Russia remains an important supplier of crude oil and natural gas on the global market. However, recently the country started to demonstrate changes in its trade patterns. The country is actively developing its manufacturing and agricultural sectors […]
December 27, 2021

Economic Cooperation between Central Asia and the European Union

Countries of Central Asia consider cooperation with the European Union (EU-27) as one of the most important strategic directions. They intend to intensify trade with the EU countries and attract investments. The EU remains important due to different factors, including the market size, income level, standards, competition, and trade rules. […]
July 19, 2021

Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine: Not In the Commonwealth Of Independent States Any More, Not In the European Union Yet

Since recently, Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia have been engaging in active mutual cooperation in their pursuit of European integration. All three states signed their respective association agreements with the “European Union (“EU”)” in 2014. On June 24, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the three countries held meetings with the […]
June 9, 2021

Sadyr Japarov’s Era in Kyrgyzstan: An Evaluation on Foreign Policy and Economic Developments

The constitutional amendment referendum and local council elections (kenesh) were held together in Kyrgyzstan on April 11th 2021. According to the Kyrgyzstan Central Election Commission (CEC), while 1.295.096 people (39.09%) voted in the local council elections, 1.338.717 people (37.12%) voted for the referendum in 2.483 ballot boxes throughout the country. […]
May 12, 2021

Enhancing the Capacity of the Korday-Ak Zhol Checkpoint: Implications for Bilateral Cooperation

On April 2, 2021, the major border checkpoint at Kazakh-Kyrgyz international boundary – the Korday-Ak Zhol was opened after renovation by Prime Minister of Kazakhstan Askar Mamin and Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan Ulukbek Maripov. During the opening ceremony, which was part of the ninth meeting of the intergovernmental council, counterparts […]
May 11, 2021

The Commonwealth of Independent States and Three Decades of Regional Cooperation in the Post-Soviet Space

December 2021 will mark 30 years since the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was founded. The “Agreement Establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States” signed by the leaders of the Byelorussian SSR, the Russian SFSR, and the Ukrainian SSR on December 8, 1991, gave birth to the organization [Prlib.ru, 1991]. On […]
May 10, 2021

Heart of Asia – Istanbul Process

“Heart of Asia – Istanbul Process” (HoA-IP) is a joint initiative of Afghanistan and Turkey, announced 10 years ago at the 2011 conference in Istanbul. This initiative is aimed at strengthening regional security, economic and political cooperation with Afghanistan through dialogue and confidence-building measures. Within the framework of this joint […]